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By Gabriel Barkay, Alexander Fantalkin, Oren Tal

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Earnest Cary; LCL; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1943], 4:353). 69 The term ψευδ νειρος is interesting in itself. According to the TLG, the word 36 chapter one this case, but the character’s interpretation of it. Chariton’s use of the term ψευδ νειρος (“false dream”) is striking, nevertheless. Whereas the references found in Od. 19, Hist. 16, Aristotle, and Cicero dispute the general reliability of dreams in an explicit fashion, these last two examples offer perhaps an even stronger argument against Hanson’s generic conclusions.

13 See esp. Homer, Od. 831–834. 14 William Messer, The Dream in Homer and Greek Tragedy (New York: Columbia University, 1918). Messer distinguishes between “dreams” and what he calls “waking visions,” and includes only the former in this examination. 15 See, for example, the passage in Homer, Il. 2 discussed above; Messer, Dream, 8–9. 16 This is especially true in Persians, Libation-Bearers, and Prometheus Bound (Messer, Dream, 60–74). Messer wrote before the common contemporary assumption that Prometheus Bound is not authentically Aeschylean (see Mark Griffith, The Authenticity of Prometheus Bound [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977]).

42 A couple of examples will suffice: “If a man dreams that he has the head of a lion, wolf, leopard, or elephant, instead of his own, it is auspicious. For a dreamer who attempts things beyond his powers will be successful in them and, as a result of his superiority, will gain many advantages” (Artemidorus, Onir. 37); “Bees mean good luck for farmers and beekeepers. But for other men, they signify confusion because of their hum, wounds because of their sting, and sickness because of their honey and wax” (Onir.

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